Personal deities with the power of the natural forces.
They worshiped through dancing, drumming and divination.
The priest class was developed to fight against witches.
There existed a Creator deity with any more smaller gods and goddesses.
Ancestor veneration was still in practice and it was linked with the spiritual world.
Islam spread to North Africa through the Trans-Saharan trade routes.
Unified the area under the Abbasid rule.
Ghana was transformed by Islam as its leaders converted to it.
Mali also converted to Islam.
They supported preachers, built mosques, and attended prayer.
They're sermons emphasized the veneration of the king.
Songhay too, was an Islamicized kingdom in West Africa.
In the Swahili coast Islam began to mix with native traditions creating a new form of Islam, Africanized Islam.
Christianity spread to places left out from the spread of Islam in North Africa.
The largest groups of Christians were located in Egypt, Axum, and Nubia.
The most important African Christians were the Axum, which later became known as Ethiopia.
It was cutoff the Christian world by Islamic conquests.
Spread of Islam
Spread of Christianity
Representation of a ritual from an animistic religion.
Society- Family, gender relations, social class, inequalities, lifestyles
In Mali, Sundiata created the basic relationships between government and society.
He created 16 clans of people who were free and could carry around their weapons as a symbol of their social status.
5 clans devoted to religious duties.
4 clans that were specialists, such as blacksmiths.
In Songhay, the population was a mix of Islamic and Pagan people.
There was a privileged caste system of craftsmen.
Women in Songhay had better rights and were treated more fairly, than in other African societies.
Most men in Songhay were blacksmiths, fishermen, and farmers.
Slaves could become free, and be active citizens in their society, but many were restricted from forming part of the elite class.
Intellectual, Innovation, and Invention- Writing, literature, philosophy, math, science, education
Ghana depended on the bookkeeping and literary skills the Muslims possessed to keep record of their history.
Most of the knowledge from Ghana's history comes from Muslim scholars.
Just as in Ghana, Mali relied on Muslim scholars for their government and administration of the empire.
In Songhay, the leader Askia improved universities by instituting new rhetoric, logic teachings, that included Islamic law, grammar, astronomy, history, and geography.
Also in some parts of the empire, knowledge and traditions were passed on orally by griots, or African storytellers.
Timbuktu was a center for trade and scholarship.
Ibn Battuta traveled the Northern and Eastern parts of Africa.
Comparison of Ibn Battuta's travels to Marco Polo's
A manuscript from the Timbuktu library.
Tuareg nomads in Timbuktu
Arts and Architecture- Arts, music, dances, buildings
Art is often thought of as exotic, incorporating mask and traditional carvings, or even beautiful designs in everyday utensils.
Architecture in the West African kingdoms was transformed by the introduction of Islam.
Like the construction of huge adobe mosques in Jenne and Timbuktu.
Also the building constructed in the center of the kingdom of Great Zimbabwe that is made without mortar, which is 15 ft. wide walls and 30 ft. high. This building has a religious importance to the Bird of God which is the link between heaven and Earth.
Mother and Child, 15th–20th century
Standing Male Figure, c.12th–c.17th century from Western Sudan
Footed Bowl, 13th century from Mali
Girdle, 12th century from the Tellem people in Mali
Seated Figure, 13th century from Mali
Near Geographic- Location, physical, movement, human/environment, region
Ghana's capital was at the edge of the Sahara desert, in West Africa.
Songhay was located in the Niger region and later expanded to Sudan.
Bantu people began to migrate from West Africa to the south and east through migration paths that passed through the Congo rainforest.
They migrated because the amount of space they had wasn't suitable for farming.
Some migrated to the east coast and found that it had better and more open land for farming.
Others migrated south, to the dry, grassy west coast in Southern Africa, which was good for grazing animals such as sheep, cattle and goats.
They did not move into Northern Africa because the Sahara was a natural barrier that did not allow them to travel very far into the northern part of Africa.
During the 13th century the Swahili Coast, which extends from the horn of Africa to modern-day Mozambique, saw a chain of ports appear along its coast, becoming great trading posts.
The mayor cities included Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Zanzibar, and Pate.
Kongo and Great Zimbabwe were Central African kingdoms.
Kongo was on the Atlantic Ocean coast and took part in the Atlantic slave trade with the Portuguese.