They continued their religious toleration as long as the people continued to pay their jizya.
Introduced the Twelver Shiism, which stated that one of the descendant of Muhammad, beginning with Ali, would come back to take power and help spread the true religion.
Also believed Shah Ismail was an incarnation of Allah.
Established the Shiite sect of Islam in Iran and Iraq that still exists today.
Religion was divided among two different branches, the Sunnis and the Shi'as
Praying at the Kabaa in Mecca
Society- Family, gender relations, social class, inequalities, lifestyles
The ruler's mother or mother-in-law or his favorite concubine had special privileges, and just as Chinggis Khan, the rulers of the Ottoman and Safavid empires relied greatly on this women.
Population didn't increase as greatly as other regions in the world.
Social Class structure
1. Sultan, 2. Government Officials, 3. Regional Officials, 4. General people (merchants, peasants, etc.)
Harems were established, which were sections in a Muslim home where women lived.
There were female slaves and women has some rights.
The practice of veiling women was still in use.
Many women continued to live a suppressed life in their society.
Egyptian Ottoman Turkish Woman
Middle Class men at a coffeehouse
Intellectual, Innovations, and Invention- Writing, literature, philosophy, math, science, education
Lack of intellectual pursuit due to the empire's focus on expansion.
Neglected the larger cultural developments happening in other regions in the world.
Muslim rulers and their subjects believed they were superior to Europeans and that they had nothing to learn from them.
Conservative Islamic leaders discouraged the circulation of writings that might pose a threat to the social and cultural development as stated by Islam.
European warfare technologies were acquired, like cannons and guns.
Created new navigational tools, and did advanced in astronomy.
17th century Ottoman astronomers
Arts and Architecture- Arts, music, dances, buildings
Architecture reflected imperial majesty.
Monuments had Byzantine and Islamic elements.
One of Suleiman's religious complex's used the combination of tall, slender minarets and huge domes supported by half domes that reflects many of the elements seen in the Byzantine church, the Hagia Sophia.
Geometrical designs and mosaics
Calligraphy, painting and bookbinding are important elements of Islamic art.
Use of natural resources such as gold, silver, lapis lazuli, ground cinnabar, orpiment, and malachite, were used to create pigments.
They used geometrical or vegetal designs, as well as rich floral motifs, arabesques, and cloud bands.
"Star Ushak" carpet from the late 15th century, which shows geometrical patterns
Velvet fragment from the Safavid period
Tile from the early 15th century
Piece of cloth with vine pattern from the Ottoman period
Silver covers for a gospel from Turkey in 1691
Tughra (Imperial Cipher) of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent
Portrait of Sultan Ahmet I (r. 1603–17), Ottoman period
Mosque–lamp–shaped vessel with Arabic inscriptions from the Ottoman period
Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Interior of the Blue Mosque
Near Geographic- Location, physical, movement, human/environment, region
During the Ottoman empire, they expanded their territory.
Controlled much of southeastern Europe, almost all of the Middle East, and Egypt.
Istanbul in Anatolia became the empire's capital.
Egypt was very important to the empire since it was the entrance for Europeans to enter the main trade route in the Indian Ocean.
Mostly barren lands and desert.
Major bodies of water include the Mediterranean, Black, Caspian, Red and Arabian Sea.
Major mountain ranges are the Caucasus mountains located between the Black and Caspian Seas, and the Asir and Hejas mountains along the border of Saudi Arabia with the Red Sea.
Temperatures are at great extremes in desert regions, but great bodies of water such as the Black and Caspian Seas create a more moderate climate, and there is little to no rainfall.