In 1905, Attendees at the Seventh Zionist Congress decide that Palestine is the only suitable place for a Jewish state.
In 1906, The all-India Muslim League was founded by Aga Khan III.
1909: Tel Aviv is built by the Jews and becomes the first modern Jewish city.
Sultan Selim III failed in leading the Muslims to the traditional pilgrimage to Mecca.
At the start of the 19th century, political divisions led to a group known as the janissaries. The janissaries were a group of young Christian boys taken primarily from the Balkans, who converted to Islam, and trained to be elite military guards.
Muslim religious scholars, known as the ulama, had controlled the Islamic courts within the empire and had great influence over cultural and political policy.
The tax on non-muslims was abolished
A code specifying equal legal security amongst the Muslim, Christians, and Jewish subjects were enforced.
Society- Family, gender relations, social class, inequalities, lifestyles
The men in the society continued to be superior tot he women politically and socially.
Men made decisions in society and at home.
Women were expected to stay home and raise the children.
Reform was exclusively restricted to men.
The westernization of the court system resulted in a loss of power for women.
Women were not allowed to partake in industrial labor and professional occupation.
Intelectual, Innovation, and Invention- Writing, literature, philosophy, math, science, education
In 1907, the first major underwater archaeological exploration is established off the coast of Tunisia.
In May 1908, Oil is found in Persia.
Main source of power changed from man and animal power to the power of fossil fuels
Advances in medicine and sanitation led to a longer lifespan amongst people, and healthier lifestyles.
The Sciences of the Middle East were generally influenced by the sciences in the west.
Arts and Architecture- Arts, music, dances, buildings
The construction of the Suez Canal was completed in 1869.
The construction of Mosques and Minarets were commonly built throughout the Middle East.
Mosaics were commonly found in Mosques and other traditional buildings.
The Ottoman Empire was referred to as the "Gunpowder Empire".
Creation of art had decreased due to the decline of the empire.
The architecture styles of the Middle East had influence on the west.
Near Geographic- Location, physical movement, human/environment, region
The countries that make up the Middle East include: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
Movement of the middle class would migrate from city to the suburbs .
Vast deserts are common in the region.
The Middle East region represents an area of over 5.0 million square miles.
The desert of the Arabian Peninsula is so inhospitable that it has been given the name "The Empty Quarter."
In areas better served by rainfall and rivers (for example the Tigris-Euphrates river) rich agriculture was abundant.
Other critical water routes would include: the Suez Canal, which links the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea; Bab el Mandeb, a strait that separates the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean; and the Strait of Hormuz, which links the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.