P - Political - Leaders, state structure, war, diplomacy, courts/laws
There was havoc in China until 1926. The Nationalist Party (the Guomindang) were the only people who had any sort of control. In 1926, the Chinese Communist party rose against the Nationalist Party. However, the Nationalists managed to defeat them. This was a catalyst for the Long March. This was when southern Communist forces crossed the country to unite with northern Communist forces. This also was around the time Mao Zedong became leader of the Communist party.
Until the end of WWII, the Chinese Communist forces fought against the Japanese and the Nationalist Party. China was not in a good state. By 1949, all of China was under control by the Communists except for Taiwan. The People's Republic of China was created, and Mao Zedong had big plans for it.
Mao's Great Leap Forward did not work out as planned. A huge famine followed, and the Communist Party lost some influence. Further, the Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976 occurred, and there were deaths all over the country. Deng Xiaoping took over after the death of Mao Zedong, and while he did not loosen many of the restrictions put in place by Mao, he did lift China out of a terrible place in history. He finally died in 1997.
E - Economic - Type of system, technology/industry, trade, money, types of businesses
There were some ups and downs during this period in economy, China began the century in economic ruin. WWI and WWII both took place during this short century, leaving China with little money to spare. The Communists promised a perfect life, but this was not apparent. What's more, after the Great Leap Forward, there was even less of a chance for China to make a recovery. There was a terrible famine and depression.
Thankfully, after Mao Zedong died, Deng Xiaoping took over, and turned around Chinese economy. It experienced a rapid growth and international affairs increased. Communism thrived, but now under a much more healthy economy and society.
R - Religious - Holy books, beliefs, conversion, sin/salvation, deities
Confucianism was largely and obviously discredited under all of the chaos. Communism became like a religion to many. This period was an end to many smaller religions in China, and the larger ones only lived as traditions (as opposed to full-blown faiths).
S - Society - Family, gender relations, social classes, inequalities, lifestyles
With the power of the Chinese Communists on their side, the peasants of China rose up. There was a class reversal, and rich landlords were cast aside. The gentry class was eliminated by the Communists, creating a bridge for China into the modern world. Women's rights became a less prominent issue (since equality was important), and it seemed that the vision of a Chinese utopia would come to pass.
But, alas, Mao Zedong and the Communist Party managed to screw everything up. There was a huge famine and widespread deaths. The later Cultural Revolution caused many students to kill anyone who was too conservative, which was like a giant middle finger to China's previous concepts of filial piety.
I - Intellectual, Innovations, and Inventions - Writing, literature, philosophy, math, science, education
The Communists had many new ideas that hadn't been tried before in China, like collectivization. However, much more was lost in this century than was gained. The Cultural Revolution destroyed a huge amount of Chinese culture in the name of communism. In literature, the Little Red Book (A collection of Communist ideologies) was carried by nearly every member of the Red Guards.
A - Art and Architecture - Arts, music, dances, buildings
Not much art was created during this period, largely due to the chaos created by the Chinese Communist party. Of the artists that created art during this period, some stuck to traditional styles, while others borrowed from world cultures to transition into the modern era. This painting is of the former, although you can see some modern influence in the color scheme.
N - Near Geographic - Location, physical, movement, human/environment, region
While China changed hands politically and even went to war during the 20th century, it did not change geographically much. The creation of Bangladesh was probably the largest geographical event of the century in East Asia.
"World History Timeline China History." TimeMaps Atlas of World History. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. <http://www.timemaps.com/history/china-30bc>.