P - Political - Leaders, state structure, war, diplomacy, courts/laws
The German Wars of Religion and the Peace of Augsburg were fought in 1555.
Charles Habsburg had successfully united Christian Europe and the citizens of the Ottoman Empire.
The countries of France, Spain, and England were beginning to develop a stronger sense of central authority.
Parliament began to demand guarantees of their rights.
The English Bill of rights was established in 1689.
The English Civil War was fought in 1642.
In England, Charles I had destroyed the Parliament.
During the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Queen Mary and William of Orange were in reign.
John Locke had challenged the divine rights of the monarchs of Europe. Locke believed that the authority should come from the approval of the governed.
The Thirty Years War was fought from 1618-1648.
English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch colonies were being discovered throughout the New World and Africa.
E - Economic - Type of system, technology/industry, trade, money, types of businesses
The gold and silver collected from the Americas hit a climate point.
The " Financial Revolution" of England had taxed the aristocracy, cause a direct collection of taxes, and caused an increase in the construction of central banks.
England had defeated the Spanish Armada and gained control of the seas in 1588, which significantly increased trade.
The English Industrial Revolution was froming in the mid 1700s.
Europe had experience a decline of the Silk Road due to new technologies.
More trade was conducted by water, while land based trade decreased.
R - Religious - Holy books, beliefs, conversion, sin/salvation, deities
The Protestant Reformation began in 1517.
Martin Luther created a sect of Christianity that challenged the church called Lutheranism.
Lutheranism expressed the view that individuals were able to seek salvation through Christ and without the mediation of a priest.
Rejection of the Papal authority
The bible was translated into many different languages.
The Spanish Inquisition was the defending of Catholicism by Spain and France.
In England, Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon accommodated support for the Parliament to make the English monarch the head of the Church.
The Eastern Orthodox religion was most significant in Russia.
The countries of Portugal, Spain, France, Naples, and Ireland were dominantly Catholic.
S - Society - Family, gender relations, social classes, inequalities, lifestyles
Drastic population growth in Paris, London.
In the Netherlands, the textile industry sky rocketed and used foreign raw materials.
The commercial fleets of Amsterdam dominated the trade overseas in the seventeenth century.
Stock companies were commonly present.
Western Europe experienced a decline in slavery.
The Little Ice Age greatly challenged the lives of the many common peasants.
Deforestation affected the peasants lives as well.
Many citizens would migrate from city to city in search of poverty relief.
Women were ranked lower than men; this ranking lessened as class or wealth increased.
The sons often received a very solid education.
A healthy marriage was very important within the society.
I - Intellectuals, Innovations, and Inventions - Writing, literature, philosophy, math, science, education
Aristotle discovered four elements and contributed new ideas for physics.
Nicholas Copernicus held the idea of a heliocentric universe.
Tycho Branches and Johannes Kepler developed the idea of the earth revolving around the sun in elliptical orbits.
Galileo Galilei invented the telescope.
Isaac Newton developed common physics and the law of gravity.
Galileo had challenged the geocentric view of the universe in the year 1600.
Isaac Newton had founded Newtonian physics in 1687.
A - Art and Architecture - Arts, music, dances, buildings
The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci in 1503.
In Italy, the famous style referred to as "Baroque"is present in climactic churches which contains irregular shapes.
The famous Baroque styles had combined with Classical influence in France.
In Russia, aristocrats became intrigued by the Versailles in France, and incorporated Russian aristocrats were impressed by Versailles in France and incorporated the "Baroque ideas" in the building of St. Petersburg.
Andrea Palladio animated a comeback of classical shapes in Europe architecture.
The return of classical ideas had erupted a sort of age of "awakening" throughout Europe (Italy, France, and England).
The cathedral of St. Basil was constructed in 1554.
The Famous "Piazza Navona' was constructed in the year 1600.
N - Near Geographic - Location, physical, movement, human/environment, region
Throughout Europe, peasants began to immigrate from city to city in search of poverty relief.
Europe is bordered on the north by the Barents Sea, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south by the Mediterranean Sea.
The Alpine mountain system dominates the south central portion of the continent and is the origin of many major European rivers.
The eastern land border is defined by a line following the Ural Mountains.
The land of Europe contains adequate amounts of coal and iron.
The Renaissance, which had greatly affected the world, had began in Europe. This period in time had made Europe the leaders in both science and technology.
Europe established the very first universities in the world.
People whom contained considerable amounts of money for education had migrated to Europe.