Persian Wars Persia went to battle with Greek city states in 498 BCE after the Persian city, Sardis, was attacked. The Persian king send a navy fleet to Marathon in 490 BCE. The Athenians had defeated the Persian forces, but the Persians were persistent on winning. In 480 BCE the Persians attacked Thermopylae and defeated 5,000 Greek soldiers. Unfortunately in 479 BCE, the Greeks conquered the persians once and for all.
The Persian wars
Athenian Democracy Democracy started in a city state in Greece called Athens. Cleisthenes, Solon, and Ephiatles were democratic thinkers that helped start democracy in Athens. Citizens were allowed to vote. Many people would try to persuade the citizens by preforming plays that showed satire and politics.
Athenian Democratic Council
Twelve Tables In 449 BCE the Roman Republic installed the first laws. These laws were knows as the Twelve Tables and are considered to be some of Romoes most important laws. These laws gave citizens equality and rights.
Installment of the Twelve Tables
Greek Coins Silver coins were used throughout Greece. Northern Greece had rich silver deposits, allowing classical Greece to make and export silver coins to Persia. Coins often had the face of a Greek ruler.
Greek Economy Much of Greece relied heavily on trade for economics. Greece had many mountains. Greek city states traded with each other. The city states had traded items that ranged from manufactured goods, olive oil, and crafts. Greece also relied on agriculture. The Greeks had slaves tend to the crop fields. Greek economy caused inequality between social classes.
Trade in Greece
Rome Economy Rome relied on agriculture for economics. Once the economy became more urbanized, the rural economy declined. This was a result of the aristocracy and the increasing size of Rome. Rome had many trade routes on land and sea. Goods that were much larger, like metals, lumber, and building supplies, were traded along sea routes.
Both the Greeks and the Romans explained the universe through deities or gods. Greek gods included Zeus, Athena, Percius, Hermes, Aphrodite, and Poseidon. The Greeks gave these gods human characteristics and it is said that the gods lived on Mount Olympus. The Romans had three main gods: uno, the protector of women, Jupiter, the protector of the state, and Minerva, the goddess of wisdom.
In Greece, men were the most dominant. Men were able to vote, own property, and be leaders. All of which, women could not. Women were to stay at home. Women could not have any contact with a non-relative male and their husbands were chosen for them by their father. The social classes in Greece were: 1. The aristoi or the “Best people.” This class was the wealthy class. They owned more money and property than everybody else. 2. The middle class, or business class. They engaged in trade and manufacturing. 3. The poorer citizen class. They did not own a lot of property. However, they still owned some. In Rome, the Roman Republic had the highest authority. The social status of a woman was up to the father, but all women were still expected to work in the house.
Greek caste system
Plato and Aristotle were important philosophers of classical Greece. Plato is best known for his Theory of Ideas in which states that we cannot have notions about beauty, justice, or virtue without knowledge of these things from an earlier time. Aristotle was a student of Plato and developed the idea of logic.
Plato and Aristotle
Greek literature started through oral story telling and theater. Plays were used to bring honor to the gods and goddesses. Homer, a blind poet, wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey, two of Greece's most famous epics.
The Romans invented Roman numerals which are still used today.
The Parthenon was built as a temple for the Greeks in 447 BCE. The building showed Athen's wealth and power at the time.
Music was a major part of Greek culture. Music was played at religious festivals, weddings and funerals, and banquets. The Odeion, a enclosed concert building in Athens, is an example of the importance of music to Greek culture.
Greece was located in Europe on what is now known as the Balkan Peninsula. Located on the Mediterranean Sea, Classical Greece had a Mediterranean climate.
Greece has many mountains, which creates fertile soil to be very limited. The three main regions of classical Greece were Northern Greece, Central Greece, and the Peloponnese. Rome was located in Europe on the Italian Peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea, giving it a Mediterranean climate. Rome also had many mountains, but not as many as Greece, leaving Rome to be less isolated.